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香港幼稚園教育 Kindergarten Education in Hong Kong

學前服務 Pre-primary Services

香港的學前服務是指幼稚園及幼兒中心提供的教育和照顧。幼稚園是向教育局註冊;而幼兒中心則向勞工及福利局轄下的社會福利署註冊。幼兒中心包括育嬰園及幼兒園兩類服務機構,前者為由出生至兩歲的幼兒服務;後者為兩歲至三歲的兒童提供服務,而幼稚園則為三至六歲的兒童開設。現時大部分的幼稚園只開辦半日制課程,計有高班、低班及幼兒班,亦有部分幼稚園同時開辦全日制課程。幼兒園的服務亦有全日制及半日制兩種,大部分幼兒園兒童是接受全日制的託管服務。香港學前機構所提供的教育,目的是讓兒童在輕鬆愉快的環境中,透過各項活動及生活體驗,在體能、智能、語言、群性、情緒及美育等方面得到均衡的發展。

Kindergartens, registered with the Education Bureau, provide services for children from three to six years old. Child care centres provide nurseries, catering for children aged two to three, and creches, looking after infants from birth to two. At present, most of the kindergartens operate on half-day basis offering upper, lower kindergarten classes and nursery classes. Some kindergartens operate full-day kindergarten classes too. Child care centres also provide full-day and half-day services with most centres providing full-day services.

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幼稚園的現況 Present Situation of Kindergartens

香港的幼稚園全屬私營機構,分非牟利幼稚園及私立獨立幼稚園兩類;由志願團體或私人開辦。幼稚園須根據教育條例註冊。教育局的督學經常視察各幼稚園,並在課程、教學方法和行政方面,向校長和教師提供意見。教育局亦印發《幼稚園辦學手冊》,為有意辦學者提供開辦幼稚園所須遵守的法規及建議。幼稚園在規模上有頗大的差異,有些幼稚園只有兩、三間課室,有些卻有十多間。大部分的幼稚園都能配合兒童的生活經驗和興趣,營造具啟發性的學習環境,在課室內設置「圖書角」、「數學角」、「自然角」、「美勞角」、「音樂角」和「家庭角」,輔以有關的教具,誘導兒童自發地學習。
六歲以下在本港幼稚園或幼稚園暨幼兒中心就讀的兒童,不論任何國籍,祇要符合申請資格,可透過幼稚園及幼兒中心學費減免計劃申請學費資助,詳情可參考學生資助辦事處網頁:http://www.sfaa.gov.hk

All kindergartens in Hong Kong are privately run and they can be categorised as non-profit-making kindergartens or private independent kindergartens depending on their sponsoring organisations which can either be voluntary agencies or private enterprises. All kindergartens are registered under the Education Ordinance. Inspectors from the Education Bureau visit the kindergartens regularly to give advice to principals and teachers on curriculum, teaching approaches and school administration. The "Manual of Kindergarten Practice", issued by the Education Bureau, provides prospective school operators with the necessary information regarding statutory requirements and recommendations for the operation of kindergartens.
Kindergartens vary a lot in their scale of operation and their number of classroom(s) can range from one to over ten. Regarding the provision of facilities, a large proportion of kindergartens can accommodate a Reading Corner, Mathematics Corner, Nature Corner, Art and Crafts Corner, Music Corner, Home Corner, etc. which are all well equipped with the necessary teaching aids to provide a stimulating environment for self-learning.
All children aged below 6 studying in kindergartens or child care centres in Hong Kong, irrespective of their nationalities and subject to their eligibility status, can apply for fee assistance under the Kindergarten and Child Care Centre Fee Remission Scheme. The Scheme is detailed at http://www.sfaa.gov.hk.

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學前教育課程 Pre-primary Curriculum

隨世界幼兒教育發展趨勢,和配合本世紀初香港的教育制度和課程改革的路向,課程發展議會幼兒教育委員會進行修訂1996年發佈的學前教育課程指引工作。新編訂的《學前教育課程指引 (2006)》於2007年在學前教育機構全面推行。
《學前教育課程指引 (2006)》申明幼兒教育是終身學習和全人發展的基礎,重視以「兒童為中心」的核心價值。學前教育機構應按照「兒童發展」和「兒童學習」的基本原則來訂定課程,必須兼顧幼兒的興趣、需要和能力,創設發他們多元智能的環境,透過生活經驗、感官的接觸、各種探索活動和趣味的遊戲,讓他們均衡地發展。
在此課程架構下訂有四項幼兒發展目標﹕「身體」、「認知和語言」、「情意和群性」及「美感」。這些目標可透過六個學習範疇來落實,它們是「體能與健康」、「語文」、「早期數學」、「科學與科技」、「個人與群體」和「藝術」。我們尤其重視發展幼兒的基本能力,調知識概念的建立,培養他們正確價值觀和良好態度;所有的學習均涵蓋「知識」、「技能」和「態度」三個重要元素,以培育幼兒在德、智、體、群、美各方面的全面發展,為生活作好準備,為未來學習打好基礎。

The "Guide to the Pre-primary Curriculum (2006)" emphasises that early childhood education lays the foundation for life-long learning and whole person development. The core value of early childhood education lies in "child-centredness". Pre-primary institutions should formulate their curriculum according to the basic principles of "children's development" and "children's learning". Children's learning interest, needs and abilities should also be taken into consideration. A diversified learning environment that provides sufficient learning opportunities will facilitate children to develop their multiple intelligences. Through play, meaningful life experiences as well as sensory, exploratory and interesting activities, children's holistic development can be fostered.

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小一入學統籌辦法 Primary One Admission System

在香港,兒童年齡在五歲八個月或以上(以九月一日入學時為準)而仍未就讀小學,均可參加教育局的小一入學統籌辦法,入讀官立或資助小學一年級。這辦法旨在免除兒童為忙於應付小學一年級入學考試所造成的壓力,以及對幼稚園教育造成不良的影響。教育局會依家長申請表填報的資料輸入電腦,按他們選擇學校的意願,分配學位給兒童。全部參加這項統籌辦法的兒童,均會獲派官立或資助小學的小一學位。

All children in Hong Kong who have attained the age of 5 years 8 months or older (as at 1st September of the year of school entry) are eligible to participate in this admission scheme provided that they have not been allocated a Primary One place previously. They can be admitted to government or aided primary schools. The purpose of the System is to minimize the pressure imposed on young children as a result of intense competition for primary one places and the adverse effect this will have on education at the kindergarten level. Parents are required to fill in an application form and indicate their choice of schools in order of preference. The Education Bureau would input the data into the computer and based on the preference indicated in the application form allocate children to different schools. All children joining the System will be offered admittance to Primary One in government or aided primary schools.

資料來源:教育局 http://www.edb.gov.hk
Source: Education Bureau http://www.edb.gov.hk

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