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共融校園 Integration in Schools

近年,在很多招收少數族裔學生的學校裡,少數族裔和華裔學生的比例越來越失衡。 學校的學生大部分都是少數族裔,造成種族隔離的效應。

如果學校已經有數年招收少數族裔學生的經驗,通常高年級華裔和少數族裔學生的比例會較平均。但年級越低,少數族裔學生佔的比例越高,低年級華裔學生人數變得寥寥可數。

很多學校面對此情況,情非得已。很多學校開始招收少數族裔學生後,在招收華裔學生上都開始遇上困難。有些華裔學生會在學校收取少數族裔學生後轉校。學校亦發現,校內少數族裔學生人數越顯著,越難招收華裔新生,反而學校越受少數族裔家庭歡迎。久而久之,學校裡少數族裔學生便由少數變成大多數,形成種族隔離效應。

其實種族多元融和的校園環境對學生和對香港社會也有益處。少數族裔學生與華裔學生一同上學,沉浸在中文語言環境,對學習中文有莫大幫助。反之,少數族裔在種族隔離的學校讀書,中文能力普遍較差。

多元校園亦可促進種族社區之間的交流,幫助少數族裔學生融入香港主流社會。種族隔離的校園環境不能反映香港社會的真像,少數族裔學生在隔離的環境長大,對融入香港主流社會有百害而無一利,亦影響學生接收社會資訊。

融樂會認為,種族隔離校園,抵觸種族歧視條例,是間接種族歧視。

We observed that the student populations in some schools are becoming predominantly from ethnic minorities, and the phenomenon is culminating to the effect of racial segregation.

In many schools that have started to recruit ethnic minority students a few years ago, the Chinese-to-ethnic minority ratio in the upper forms is still quite evenly distributed. However, in the lower forms, the students are mostly from ethnic minorities, with only a handful of Chinese students in each grade. In a few years, it can be predicted that the entire student population in these schools would be predominantly from ethnic minorities.

These schools did not intend to become predominantly ethnic minority. However, many schools that have admitted a certain critical number of ethnic minority students have seen a departure of their Chinese student population. Over the years, these schools have been gradually deserted by Chinese parents when they find that their children may be outnumbered by students from ethnic minorities. Some Chinese students transfer schools, while other new Chinese students who have been allocated to the school decide not to enroll.

A racially integrated school environment is beneficial to students and the broader Hong Kong society. It is advantageous for ethnic minority students learning Chinese to be immersed in a Chinese-language environment. We have observed that ethnic minority students studying in racially segregated schools tend to have much lower Chinese language abilities.

Social connections and information exchange in school can also help ethnic minority students integrate into the mainstream Hong Kong society, and build bridges between the Chinese and the ethnic minority communities in Hong Kong. Racial segregation creates highly unbalanced school communities that do not reflect the reality of the Hong Kong society, and students who have grown up in these environments have a much harder time adjusting after graduation. Students in predominantly ethnic minority schools also tend to have access to less information about the broader Hong Kong society and the resources that are available to them.

Hong Kong Unison posits that the segregation of students on the grounds of race may constitute indirect racial discrimination based on the Race Discrimination Ordinance.

 

政策建議 Policy Suggestions

政府(尤其是教育局、 民政事務總署和政制及內地事務局)應該考慮以下方案,減低學校種族隔離效應:
The Government, especially the Education Bureau (EDB), Home Affairs Department (HAD) and Constitutional and Mainland Affairs Bureau (CMAB), should ameliorate the effects of racial segregation in schools. Below are some measures the government can take:

  • 為主流學校及以少數族裔為主的學校作配對,發展學生交流計劃,讓華裔和少數族裔學生有更多機會互相接觸和合作
    In the short term, set up buddy school systems between mainstream Chinese schools and schools with large ethnic minority student populations to facilitate student exchange;
  • 在學校收生時設少數族裔學生比例上限,避免種族隔離效應
    To limit racial segregation in schools, the government can impose a maximum cap on the ratio of ethnic minority students in each school to ensure racial imbalance in schools;
  • 逐步減少指定學校數目,並在更多主流學校推動和支援融合教育
    Gradually reduce the number of designated schools, while providing more support to mainstream schools that admit ethnic minority students;
  • 長遠而言, 檢討融入教育政策,確保少數族裔和華裔學生有機會同學同樂,令不同種族的學生有機會融和相處
    In the long run, re-evaluate our policies on integration, to ensure that ethnic minority students have a chance to interact with Chinese peers and integrate into the Hong Kong mainstream society;
  • 積極在校園裡營造共融環境,在小學常識科和中學通識科加入文化敏感度和種族融和的課程。政府亦應推行有系統的公民教育計劃,培養種族間的平等和接受,並增強文化敏感度和教授非華語學童中文的教師培訓。
    Cultivate culturally inclusive school environments, by inserting units on racial harmony and cultural sensitivity into the primary school General Studies and secondary school Liberal Studies curricula. They should also implement a systematic Civic Education Scheme that nurtures racial equality and acceptance, and increase teacher training on cultural sensitivity and teaching Chinese to non-Chinese students.

 

倡議策略 Advocacy Strategies

  • 與政府有關部門及平機會直接對話
    Direct communication with the relevant government departments and the EOC
  • 與學校保持溝通
    Communication with schools
  • 向相關團體遞交立場書
    Written submissions to concerned parties

 

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